Stunning simulation of Hurricane Sandy:
Watch as Hurricane Sandy gathers wind speed along the East Coast and take note the transition of the storm until it makes landfall. Via NASA: This simulation runs from Oct. 26 to Oct. 31, 2012, highlighting Hurricane Sandy’s near-surface (850 hPa) winds. More information: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a030000/a030000/a030019/
Image #1 below show wind field of Hurricane Sandy. On 29 October 2012, Sandy’s huge wind field impacted the US East Coast. It reached Atlantic City, New Jersey, at 8 p.m. local time, with winds of 130 km/h (81 mph). Image confirms NASA simulation wind speed splash effect. – Green 80–90km/h, Yellow 101–110km/h, Orange 111–120km/h and Red 131–140km/h. – http://www.munichre.com/en/reinsurance/topics-online/2013/02/natural-catastrophes/default.aspx
Image #2 below shows Sea level pressure, wind speeds, and accumulated rainfall from a GEOS-5 7-km simulation. Note the diagram on Sea level pressure. Sea level pressure hits peak just as Sandy makes landfall, 952hPa. Note the diagram on surface wind speeds. Surface wind speed hits peak just as Sandy makes landfall, 92mph. More information: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a030000/a030000/a030019/
Image #3. “A peculiar configuration of atmospheric steering currents thrust the burgeoning vortex westward, against the grain of the mid-latitude’s prevailing circulation. It was the worst possible scenario for a coastline teeming with tens of millions of inhabitants. Element 2, the jet stream trough, and Element 4, a blocking ridge of high pressure over Greenland, interacted to turn Sandy toward the coast. A great many meteorologists were at a loss to explain the improbability of this combination of events.” http://www.weatherwise.org/Archives/Back%20Issues/2013/March-April%202013/hurricane-sandy-full.html
Image #4. The only other hurricane to hit New Jersey since 1851 besides Sandy was the 1903 Category 1 Vagabond Hurricane (Also known as the 1903 New Jersey Hurricane).
According to Wikipedia, the Vagabond Hurricane caused heavy damage along the New Jersey coast ($180 million in 2006 dollars.) The hurricane killed 57 people, and endangered the life of President Theodore Roosevelt, who was sailing on a yacht near Long Island, NY, when the hurricane hit. However, the Vagabond Hurricane hit in September, when the jet stream is typically weaker and farther to the north. It is quite extraordinary that Sandy was able to hit New Jersey in late October, when the jet stream is typically stronger and farther south, making re curvature to the northeast much more likely than in September. (Source – http://www.wunderground.com/blog/JeffMasters/why-did-hurricane-sandy-take-such-an-unusual-track-into-new-jersey ). The path of the 1903 Vagabond Hurricane, the only other hurricane to hit New Jersey since 1851.
Image #5. By hitting the coast at a nearly perpendicular angle, Sandy brought its strongest winds and maximum storm surge to the New Jersey and New York coastlines. The storm surge was aided by the timing of high tide and the geographical features of the coastline, which tends to maximize the potential surge in certain areas depending on the wind direction, including New York Harbor. (Source – http://www.climatecentral.org/news/hurricane-sandy-unprecedented-in-historical-record-study-says-15505 ). Image Credit – Carlye Calvin and Bob Henson, UCAR.
Image #6. While Sandy was still a hurricane, the storm’s outer edges began to reveal some aspects of an extratropical cyclone, with an enormous zone of strong surface wind and “a great chimney of upper-level outflow,” (see satellite image). The storm’s warm core briefly intensified about a day before landfall. (Source – http://www.wmo.int/pages/publications/meteoworld/archive/nov12/sandy_en.html )
Weather Warfare Documentary (History Channel):